Diversity Metrics, Measurement, and Evaluation
by Marc Brenman
Quantitative indicators are important. They are “Information expressed as numbers, percentages or ratios—offer a statistical snapshot of a situation by providing a measure of ‘how much’, ‘how many’, ‘to what extent’ or ‘what size’. they demonstrate the level something is at, the direction it is headed and how far it is from a certain goal or target.” (Center for Economic and Social Rights; The OPERA Framework: Assessing compliance with the obligation to fulfill economic, social and cultural rights; 2012)
It helps for a diversity and inclusion practice to meet metrics. Use metrics to evaluate how well the organization is doing on its diversity and inclusion program. See the discussion below on desirable metrics. Use data as an indicator of the effectiveness over time of ongoing diversity programs. Data collection “is the most crucial step of the evaluation process because without data, there is no evidence of the diversity initiative’s impact and therefore no need for an evaluation.” (Hubbard, Edward, The Diversity Scorecard: Evaluating the Impact of Diversity on Organizational Performance, San Francisco: Elsevier, 2004)
Benefits from diversity training are perennially difficult to measure, but such measurement is possible. Benefits from diversity ought to be measurable. These measures could include better relationships among diverse staff members, fewer grievances and complaints, improved labor relations; reduction of noose, graffiti, and hate incidents; and more diverse hiring. Employee climate surveys could be used in addition to employment data bases. Other metrics could include gaining improvements in productivity, developing innovation and creativity, improving job satisfaction, career development over time, retention, decrease in pay disparities, performance on exit interviews, ranking of company in terms of best places to work, and becoming an employer of choice.
Metrics are a necessary element to validate that a diversity strategy contributes to an organization’s competitive advantage. Traditional or foundational metrics include numbers related to success in workforce representation, dollars spent with women and minority businesses, and the documentation of diversity activities and training. Metrics are the attributes or factors that are important for you to understand. Standardized metrics are those attributes that an industry might use to compare different organizations, media outlets, etc. There is some debate about the value of benchmarking with different organizations. As diversity has been redefined as a strategic business advantage, measurements have become more sophisticated with quantitative and qualitative measurements tied to business goals. Metrics today can measure revenue growth, improved productivity, leadership accountability and a financial return on investment. Diversity should be measured with the same kind of scrutiny that business operations have commonly received.
“Measure: What gets measured gets done. They key is not creating a separate report card for multicultural, but making your current report card inclusive. If you report monthly sales – which everyone does – make your sales report inclusive by reporting contributions by consumer group. The same applies to other key metrics like marketing mix analysis, campaign return on investment, media planning, employee goals & objectives and compensation models in order to properly track and reward cultural inclusiveness and results.”
(Liliana Gil, co-founder and Managing Partner of AG and former Worldwide Director of Marketing Services at Johnson & Johnson)
DI programs should be able to show real statistical increases in numbers and percents of recruitment, applications, hiring, retention, training, and promotion of people from traditionally discriminated and underrepresented groups. These increases should be greater than natural demographic growth in the organization's usual service and hiring geographic area. In terms of qualitative measures, employee climate surveys with questions about perceptions of diversity, welcomeness, trust, fairness, etc. should show improvements over a baseline. Employee focus groups should show the same improvement. On a more psychological level, various social distancing scales should show decreased social distance and prejudiced thinking. This is perhaps not the place to go into any detail about performance measurement in general, but suffice it to say a little-- outcomes (results) and outputs (widgets you make) are two different things; and performance should generally be measured by social equity and opportunity, quantity, quality, timeliness, cost, effectiveness, efficiency, return on investment, and customer service. Most of these are measured using ratio measures (one factor over another, something by something else).
The impact of diversity can be measured. Firstly, there is research done by Prof Frank Dobbin, Harvard Business School, 'Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies'. Secondly, the Apr 2004 HBR has an article in it demonstrating how IBM obtained a big revenue return from targeting medium sized women and minority ethnic owned businesses. It's possible, also, to measure the savings in recruitment costs from achieving higher retention rates for 'minority' employees through building a more inclusive culture. Another measure is the reductions in absenteeism for underrrepresented affinity groups when effort is put into fostering an inclusive culture for everyone. It's also possible to measure the engagement ratings for employees from different affinity groups in annual engagement surveys. As well as these measures, my business also uses Human Synergistics Organizational Cultural Inventory to measure the extent to which a client's culture shifts from Aggressive or Passive/ Defensive to Constructive/Satisfaction for the different affinity groups during a change programme to build a more inclusive culture.
(Posted by Ian Dodds)
“Many companies struggle with effectively measuring the results of diversity initiatives. In part, the challenge is determining what measures will yield useful information. For others, this task is difficult because they do not yet collect the necessary data required to measure diversity. Diversity programs, for example, are often considered to have “intangible” results, such as improved communication or improved teamwork…yet such improvements may have a significant impact on productivity, growth and profits. Clearly, metrics is the path forward for organizations to successfully track results, as well as identify diversity management concerns that need to be addressed.” (Diversity Management Series Part II: Measuring ROI for Diversity Management, 4/1/2005, Society for Human Resource Management,
In regard to health care organizations, “Self-reported satisfaction was especially likely to be found as a result of training, whereas attitude change measured by standardized instruments was mixed. Although those responsible for diversity training in the workplace agree that behavioral change is key, awareness building and associated attitude change remain the focus of most diversity training in the workplace.” (Curtis EF, Dreachslin JL, Sinioris M, Diversity and cultural competence training in health care organizations: hallmarks of success, Health Care Manag (Frederick). 2007 Jul-Sep;26(3):255-62
We do not want to imply that finding and using good metrics to show the success of diversity programs is an impossible task. For example, in Europe it has been shown that “The presence of any forms of violence and harassment at work is likely to have negative consequences for those involved, for the organization and for society in general:
The impact on third parties is increasingly visible, causing job resignations and negatively impacting on relationships with family.” (Progressive initiatives to combat harassment: Three case examples, European Monitoring Center on Change,
- It is estimated that overall productivity is reduced by about 2% as a result of psychological violence alone.
- Signs of negative financial and productivity implications are increasingly common, with higher absenteeism rates, ill health and early retirement, high staff turnover and increased insurance premiums.
- Cost estimates reveal considerable financial gains in reducing workplace violence.
- Evidence shows that both physical and psychological violence have serious implications for health and well-being.
Quick List of Possible Metrics
- Percentage of minorities, EEO targets
- Increase in minority representation
- Increased representation of minorities at different levels of firm
- Employee satisfaction surveys
- Better relationships among diverse staff members;
- Fewer discrimination grievances and complaints;
- Fewer findings of discrimination by adjudicators and government agencies;
- Improved labor relations;
- Reduction of noose, graffiti, and hate incidents;
- More diverse hiring.
- Improvements in productivity.
- More innovation and creativity. (There are various metrics for this, such as patents granted per capita.)
- Improved job satisfaction.
- More career development over time for underrepresented group members.
- Use of bridge positions for lower level employees to bridge to professional positions.
- Better retention.
- Decrease in pay disparities.
- More positive responses on exit interviews.
- Higher ranking of the organization in terms of best places to work.
- Becoming an employer of choice.
- Awards from special interest and advocacy groups.
- Inclusion of diversity in corporate social responsibility efforts.
- Independence and professionalism of the diversity officer.
Real statistical increases in numbers and percents of recruitment, applications, hiring, retention, training, and promotion of people from traditionally discriminated and underrepresented groups, disaggregated by race, national origin, gender, disability, and other protected statuses in the organization's areas of operation and interest. The increases should be significantly greater than natural demographic growth in the organization's usual service and hiring geographic area.
In terms of qualitative measures, employee climate surveys with questions about perceptions of diversity, welcomeness, trust, fairness, etc. should show improvements over a baseline. Employee focus groups should show the same improvement.
On a more psychological level, social distancing scales should show decreased social distance and less prejudiced thinking and unconscious bias.
Performance in diversity and inclusion should generally be measured by social equity and opportunity, quantity, quality, timeliness, cost, effectiveness, efficiency, return on investment, and customer service. Most of these are measured using ratio measures (one factor over another, something by something else).
Savings in recruitment costs from achieving higher retention rates for 'minority' employees through building a more inclusive culture.
Reductions in absenteeism for underrrepresented affinity groups when effort is put into fostering an inclusive culture for everyone.
Engagement ratings for employees from different affinity groups in annual engagement surveys.
Fulfillment of an affirmative action plan, if any.
Change in minority representation
Representation of minorities at different levels of organization.
Return on Investment (ROI) for diversity initiatives.
Employee satisfaction surveys that include diversity proxy measures such as trust, fairness, and transparency.
Diversity metrics include better relationships among diverse staff members.
Fewer findings of discrimination by adjudicators and government agencies.
Employee climate surveys with questions about perceptions of diversity, welcomeness, trust, fairness, etc. should show improvements over a baseline. Interviews with employee focus groups and affinity groups should show the same improvement.
It's possible to measure the savings in recruitment costs from achieving higher retention rates for 'minority' employees through building a more inclusive culture. Another measure is the reductions in absenteeism for underrrepresented affinity groups when effort is put into fostering an inclusive culture for everyone. It's also possible to measure the engagement ratings for employees from different affinity groups in annual engagement surveys.
Presentation metrics = A way of measuring success in diversity employment, compared to "hire" metrics. One example is to present at least 50% diverse candidates for each salaried requisition. Then, have a scaled point system that delivers performance measurements. 5 pts for more than 50%, 4 pts for 40-50%, etc.
Select A Practical And Strategic Approach To Measurement
Evaluation design typically refers to the wide range of choices related to data collection. The broad questions posed are as follows:
What will be the level of rigor of data collection?
From whom will data be collected?
When will data be collected?
What type of questions will the data address?
Answers to these types of questions provide the platform for determining the frequency of data collection, the intensity of data collection, the sample(s) from whom data will be collected, the quantitative or qualitative nature of data, the data collection tools needed and the specific information that is systematically gathered.
Arguments have been made against the use of metrics. For example, Scott Page has stated about some companies that they will “rethink hiring practices—to think in terms of toolboxes, not measuring sticks…we’re making important decisions about which person to hire or to admit, I think we do better to look at toolboxes – the collections of skills that people have. Different people have different toolboxes…Clearly, if we add someone to a team, we want someone with lots of tools, but we also want someone with different tools.”
Eight Steps for Building A Measurement Process
1) Define the objective of the effort.
2) Select an appropriate mix of process, outcome and feedback measures.
3) Choose both short-term and long-term measures.
4) Evaluate the cost/benefit of proposed measures.
5) Integrate selected measures into existing measurement systems.
6) Create baseline measurement.
7) Implement desired policies and practices.
8) Review the process, outcome and feedback measures.
(Susan Funk, President, The Diversity Difference, cited in A Framework for Building Organizational Inclusion, The Workplace Diversity Network; A Joint Project of the National Conference for Community & Justice and Cornell University ILR,
Downsides of Metrics
Another downside of metrics is creating an unwieldy system. “Most management “[E]xperts agree that competency models are only as useful as their metrics. Despite this, many top-notch organizations fail to attach metrics to competencies at all, while other organizations create complex systems of measurement that can quickly become unwieldy, and are often inaccurate. Duncan Jackson, who teaches in the Department of Management and International Business at Massey University Albany (New Zealand), points out “…different measures are often added together to create an overall measure of a competency.” And that, “piecing together aspects of different measures in this way most often fail—and fail miserably.” (Duncan Jackson. “Measuring Up,” Management: April,2007)
Financial metrics, important to this level of diversity council, include cost and benefits associated with human resources (retention, turnover, cost of recruiting and training of new hires), growth of market share and emerging markets, return on investment for multi-cultural marketing and advertising, and improved communications and productivity.
Performance metrics include employee satisfaction and diversity that address different dimensions of employee satisfaction: business issues, diversity, empowerment, job and company, quality, reward and recognition, stress, workgroup and teamwork, and workload. Assessment by experts can help determine non-quantifiable results. Proxy measures can also be used when it is difficult or impossible to measure direct or core results.
Using metrics to evaluate giving and potential partners
“Before HFHE [Habitat for Humanity/Egypt] accepts a new partner, for instance, it examines not only the potential partner’s track record in community development, but also its alignment with HFHE’s core values:
integrity (following through on commitments),
diversity (no discrimination on the basis of color, religion, gender, nationality, or disability), and
equity (serving those in greatest need).
To assess the potential partner on these dimensions, HFHE conducts extensive interviews with local leaders, beneficiaries, and NGOs.” (Jane Wei-Skillern and Sonia Marciano, The Networked Nonprofit, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2008,
When such interviews are held, what questions should be asked, what data should be requested? At a minimum, the following:
A statistical breakdown of beneficiaries and staff by the various categories discussed in this book.
A copy of the organization’s policies and practices.
The organization’s diversity and affirmative action plans.
- Incorporate diversity goals and objectives in the performance appraisal and compensation processes. Example: At Verizon Communications, 5% of bonuses for directors and above are related to diversity. (Cole, Y. (2004, June/July). Top 10 companies for diversity. DiversityInc Top, 3, 3, 56-96)
- Includes diversity performance in the appraisal and development plans for leaders and employees
Use multi-rater instruments as part of the overall feedback process.
Assess what is really necessary for what success on the job.
Include adequate review and appeal mechanisms.
Are we winning/receiving awards for our diversity efforts?
There are many awards given for diversity. For example, a prestigious one is the Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership. One reason it has been given is for companies' diversity and antiracism programs. Unfortunately, sometimes the criteria for award giving are murky.
Evaluate the Success of Diversity Programs
Unfortunately, research that evaluates the effectiveness of diversity initiatives is scarce. When such research is conducted, successful initiatives are defined as those that reduce inequalities (e.g., in pay, turnover, and promotion) among demographically defined groups and/or those that employees simply evaluate as useful. Training can result in meaningful intercultural understanding, attitude change and even behavioral change.
Provide training and guidance to management and staff.
Use a self-assessment tool.
Disclosure of Data
The Glass Ceiling Commission made findings in 1995 that “public disclosure of diversity data – specifically data on the most senior positions – is an effective incentive to develop and maintain innovative, effective programs to break glass ceiling barriers.” The glass ceiling is the obstacle that women face in being promoted. It is also now sometimes used to refer to the obstacles that minorities face. Gays sometimes refer to the “pink ceiling.” Women and minorities seeking to break through the glass ceiling are better served when there are a number of women and minorities in these key positions. A recent study indicates that American women earn substantially more and benefit from a narrowing of the pay gap, if their women colleagues are in senior management. Observing women and minorities in these key positions also sends a strong message to employees that diversity is valued at all levels of the company. Moreover, as these positions frequently serve as the pipeline for future board of director candidates, diversity in these roles gains an even greater importance. (“Working for the Woman?” Female Managers and the Gender Wage Gap,” By Philip Cohen, University of North Carolina and Matt Huffman, University of California, July 2006)
1. Start with a theory of change.
2. Identify outcome categories.
3. Select a practical and strategic approach to measurement.
specificity about high level strategies and outcomes; and
common agreement about impact.
Metrics and Annual Reports
Diversity historically has been considered a soft skill and part of the human resources domain. Traditional or foundational metrics include numbers related to workforce representation, dollars spent with women and minority businesses, and the documentation of diversity activities and training. As diversity has been redefined as a strategic business advantage, measurements have become more sophisticated with quantitative and qualitative measurements tied to business goals. Metrics today measure
revenue growth, improved productivity, leadership accountability and a financial return on investment. Diversity is now being measured with the same kind of scrutiny that business operations have always used.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOA) of 2002 represents a best practice that has been adopted by leading companies. The SOA standard is the corporate world's template for effective accounting and governance practices. This trend of openness and integrity extends to measurements for diversity. Independent board members, customers, suppliers, employees, stakeholders all contribute to this reform and a climate of simply doing good business. Just as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has changed the business landscape with a
higher level of openness and integrity, diversity measurements today reflect the changing needs for enhanced relationships, greater credibility and financial return on investment.
There are several frequently used measurement models. A few of these models are discussed below:
White paper: “Measurement and ROI,” Diversity Best Practices
http://www.diversitybestpractices.com [This URL does not go to the document indicated]
Diversity Management Contribution Model, Diversity ROI Analysis Model, Hubbard & Hubbard
Organization development services, learning resources, computer, and web-
http://www.hubbardnhubbardinc.com [Nor this one]
Value Propositions, Macro Innovation
“Value Propositions” allow organizations to achieve a condition in which all members of an enterprise are engaged in problem/opportunity detection and resolution.
Diversity Earnings Per Share (dEPS Index) - Sp@rtacus Group
Metric measures diversity earnings per share and the links to validate profitability, performance, increased growth and reduced costs.
The Diversity/Inclusion Assessment Tool, ProMosaic™ II
ProMosaic™ II, The Diversity/Inclusion Assessment Tool, is a premier product designed to help organizations assess the effectiveness of their diversity and inclusion initiatives.
M-Tier measures Supplier Diversity Reporting System - MBE/WBE/government category purchases information. For more information: email@example.com
Ms Rohini Anand, chief diversity officer and senior vice president for Sodexo Inc.
Sodexo, based in Gaithersburg, Md., recently ranked sixth on DiversityInc’s list of top 50 Companies for Diversity. Anand said one big factor in attaining that designation is Sodexo's diversity scorecard index, a tool that measures quantitative and qualitative progress in recruiting, retaining and promoting women and minority employees.
Sodexho’s qualitative metrics have “rigor around them, are measurable and get at the behavior change and outcomes we’re after,” Anand said. These include good faith efforts to build a diverse and inclusive workplace and include measures such as diversity-related training participation rates, networking group participation, and achievement of diversity council objectives, affirmative action goal attainment, and the like.
In 2002, Sodexo made the strategic decision to begin holding managers and executives accountable for diversity when it began linking scorecard results to a significant portion of management bonuses that can range from 10 to 15 percent of the total bonus for managers and 25 percent of the total bonus for the executive team.
She noted that bonuses for diversity and inclusion efforts are “decoupled from the finances of the company” and paid regardless of company financial results in any given year.
“We believe that this is a long-term commitment and a journey,” Anand noted. “If sales are down or if the economy is poor, you can’t stop your focus on diversity and inclusion or you’ll lose ground and traction. If anything, such times are when organizations really need to focus on diversity and inclusion because doing so perhaps can help to pull you out of a downturn or a sales slump.”
As for the results, Anand said the percentage of minority employees at the company has increased 23 percent since the diversity scorecard and accountability program was implemented, while the percentage of female employees has risen 11 percent.
Allstate Insurance Co. in Northbrook, Ill. looks at diversity as it relates to talent, reputation and markets. When it comes to accountability, leaders are evaluated annually on results and behaviors, according to Anise Wiley-Little, the company’s chief diversity officer.
“We embed the accountability for diversity into many things and we find that it is most effective if it shows up in multiple places and in different ways throughout the corporation,” said Wiley-Little, who added that accountability for diversity “sits on everyone’s desk.”
Allstate’s annual Quality Leadership Measurement Survey (QLMS) is a detailed survey that drills down to the unit level with specific measures as to how the individual manager is performing on leadership aspects of the job, including diversity execution. Questions range from whether people are treated with “dignity and respect” and if individuals are allowed to advance “regardless of race or gender” in that manager’s unit.
All levels of managers are held accountable for diversity through the QLMS and organizational success factors, which is part of their annual performance review that determines pay decisions.
Likewise, Organizational Success factors—which are the same for all leaders regardless of their level—are a set of competencies, including diversity, that each individual manager is held accountable for, Wiley-Little noted.
Thomas J. Wilson, Allstate’s chairman, president and CEO, receives yearly data on workforce diversity components for each of his direct reports from demographics, promotion rates and opportunity, retention and turnover for their area of business “which has implications on their overall performance and those of their leaders,” Wiley-Little noted.
At Georgia Power in Atlanta, diversity and inclusion initiatives include a long-term management and organizational culture change process designed to expand management skills and accountability and to build trust around leading diverse work teams so everyone feels valued, respected and productive, “and that includes white men,” according to Frank McCloskey, vice president of diversity for Georgia Power.
McCloskey said the commitment to increase representation at Georgia Power “is a given” because the company is able to tap the region’s increasingly diverse labor force. Of the company’s estimated 9,000 employees, 27 percent are minorities and 23 percent females; of its 30 officers, 20 percent are minorities and 24 percent are females.
Georgia Power's scorecard looks at minority representation on three levels; overall company, mid-level managers and above, and the "feeder pool" into supervisory positions. Second, the company measures supplier diversity spending. Finally, it uses three work environment surveys to benchmark management and culture change initiatives; an internal employee survey, Fortune's Great Place To Work Trust Index and DiversityInc annual surveys.
When it comes to creating accountability for diversity and inclusion, experts suggest that organizations:
Keep the process clear, simple and understandable. Make sure that the idea of scorecards and accountability is aligned with the culture of your organization, Sodexo’s Anand said. “If you don’t have metrics and scorecards for other things you can’t just have them for diversity.”
Think carefully about the behaviors that you want. Sodexo first focused heavily on outcome or “quota” metrics such as recruiting, retention and promotion, when in retrospect, Anand said, “we should have focused more on the qualitative measures because those are the behavior changers.”
Remember that measures are fine, to a point. “We have certainly learned over time that you can have too many measures,” said Wiley-Little of Allstate. “Although as a financial services company results are everything, and we measure everything, having too many can be overwhelming.”
(Pamela Babcock, Diversity Accountability Requires More Than Numbers, 4/13/2009, http://moss07.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/Diversity/Articles/Pages/MoreThanNumbers.aspx, accessed 6/7/09)
[Inclusion of metrics in diversity management interview protocol]
Rand Corporation Diversity Manager Interview Protocol
Can you briefly tell us about your role in the organization?
How does your company define diversity? Who was involved in determining this definition?
What is the value of diversity to your company?
Competitive advantage or business success (widen employee skill base, access to different perspectives, increase innovation)
Consumer service (mirror consumer base, attract wider customer base, meet needs of diverse population)
Improve work environment (give individuals ability to develop, reach full potential, grow as individuals)
EEO compliance (avoid legal problems, comply with regulations)
Social agenda (contribute to positive community atmosphere, increase quality of life for diverse groups)
How do you know that is so?
Do you believe employees recognize the importance of diversity to your organization?
Why do you say that?
How was the diversity strategy developed and who was involved in the development?
What is your strategy? How does your organization pursue diversity?
Professional development programs
Diversity education programs
External outreach programs
Social networks and diversity awareness programs
Which of those activities, in your opinion, are most important? Why?
Which programs have been less effective? Why do you think that is so? What difficulties have you faced?
Have you tried diversity programs that failed and are no longer used? Why did they fail?
How diverse is your organization—we’re especially interested in your managers and professionals.
What kind of diversity metrics do you use?
Percentage of minorities, EEO targets
Change in minority representation
Representation of minorities at different levels of firm
ROI for diversity initiatives
Employee satisfaction surveys
What are assessments used for?
To redesign and redirect diversity programs
Accountability purposes only
To assess effectiveness of current programs
To demonstrate commitment to diversity to employees or external audiences
Who sees the assessments?
Does the level of diversity differ between skill groups or professions in the company?
Why do you think that is?
What share of your overall workforce is composed of managerial or professional employees (i.e., those with higher technical degrees)?
Are there differences in the level of diversity by seniority? Why do you think that is?
Do you have a vision of how diverse, ideally, you’d like your organization to be?
What types of obstacles do you encounter as you pursue diversity? Why do you think these obstacles exist? Can they be overcome?
Employee resistance to changed policies
Diversity programs remain peripheral, not central in employee’s minds
Difficulty in recruitment, retention of minority personnel
Difficult to secure funds for diversity programs
Lack of senior leadership support
What types of limitations do you see on your firm’s diversity? Why do you think they exist? Can they be overcome?
Lack of qualified minority applicants
Nature of firm culture prevents diversity
U.S. Office of Personnel Management:
Review applicant flow data to determine whether outreach and recruitment efforts are
effectively reaching all segments of society.
Measure percentage of qualified applicants from various hiring authorities used by the
agency within the past 12 months by demographic group.
Enter into strategic partnerships and memorialize relationships with the following:
colleges and universities, trade schools, apprentice programs, and affinity organizations
from all parts of the country.
Measure applicant flow data to determine whether applicant pools are reflective of the
relevant civilian labor force (RCLF).
Measure percentage of managers and supervisors involved in recruitment activities and
outcomes of outreach efforts to all segments of society.
Review applicant flow data of agency internship program to determine whether
applicant pools are reflective of the relevant civilian labor force (RCLF).
Review applicant flow data of agency Presidential Management Fellows to determine
whether applicant pools are reflective of the relevant civilian labor force (RCLF).
Measure percentage of interns converted and/or hired for permanent employment.
Measure percentage of hires under the Schedule A hiring authority for people with
Measure percentage of hires under Veteran Hiring Authorities within the past 12
Evaluate outcomes of SEPs and the quality of engagement of SEP Managers in the
recruitment outreach, retention, and promotion process in collaboration with human
Fortune’s Criteria for the “Best Companies for Minorities”
Below is a list of the criteria used by Fortune magazine to determine the “Best Companies for Minorities” in the United States in 2004. These criteria are grouped into three categories: minority representation, diversity programs and policies, and financial reciprocity vis-à-vis minority-associated organizations.
Board of directors: Percentage of minorities on the board of directors.
Corporate officers: Percentage of minorities among corporate officers.
Top 50 paid: Percentage of minorities among the 50 highest paid employees at the
Officials and managers: Percentage of minorities among officials and managers (or “in
Total workforce: Percentage of minorities in the workforce as a whole.
Glass ceiling: The ratio of the percentage of minorities in management to the percentage of minorities in the workforce. A value of 1 indicates parity in representation at the
management level compared with that for the workforce as a whole. A value of less than
1 indicates that minority representation is lower in management than in the workforce
as a whole. A value of greater than 1 indicates that minority representation is higher in
management than in the workforce as a whole.
New hires: Percentage of minorities among employees hired in the last calendar year.
Programs and Policies
Participation in diversity training: The percentage of employees who underwent diver-
sity training during the calendar year in question.
Number of companies requiring diversity training of managers: The number of com-
panies that make diversity training mandatory for managers.
Number of companies with a formal mentoring program: The number of companies
that have a formal mentoring program, which includes minority employees among those
Minority employees mentored as a percentage of the workforce: The number of
minority employees mentored in the calendar year in question as a percentage of the total
Number of companies tracking minority candidates for management: The number
of companies that have a succession planning program or management tracking pro-
gram that tracks high-potential minority employees for promotion into management
Minorities as a percentage of all employees tracked: The number of high-potential
minority employees being tracked for possible promotion to management as a percentage
of all employees being tracked.
Number of companies with company-sponsored employee support networks/affinity
groups: The number of companies that have corporate-sponsored affinity groups or sup-
port networks for specific minority employee groups.
Number of companies where job reviews include diversity criteria for minorities: The
number of companies that conduct job reviews for at least some managers that include
formal consideration of the manager’s progress on diversity goals for the hiring, promo-
tion, and retention of minorities.
Percentage of managers whose job reviews include diversity criteria for minorities:
The number of officials and managers whose job reviews include formal consideration
of the manager’s progress on diversity goals for the hiring, promotion, and retention
of minorities as a percentage of all employees in the official and manager employment
Number of companies where bonus includes diversity criteria for minorities: The
number of companies where bonus/compensation for at least some managers is based in
part on formal consideration of the manager’s progress on diversity goals for the hiring,
promotion, and retention of minorities.
Percentage of managers whose bonus includes diversity criteria for minorities: The
number of officials and managers whose bonus/compensation is based in part on the
formal consideration of the manager’s progress on diversity goals for the hiring, promo-
tion, and retention of minorities as a percentage of all employees in the official and man-
ager employment category.
Number of companies with internship programs aimed at minorities: The number of
companies that have formal internship programs aimed at least in part at minorities.
Minority interns as a percentage of all interns: The number of minority interns at the
company as a percentage of all interns employed by the company.
Minority interns as a percentage of minorities in the workforce: The number of minority interns at the company as a percentage of all minority employees at the company.
Companies using a minority-owned investment firm: The number of companies that
used a minority-owned investment firm to manage any part of their portfolios or pension
Companies using minority-owned underwriter in the past five years: The number of
companies that have retained a minority-owned firm as a major underwriter for corporate
issuances or debt distribution in the previous five years.
Formal program for purchasing from minority-owned firms: The number of companies that have a formal program in place for purchasing goods and services from minority-owned businesses.
Percentage of purchasing done with minority-owned firms: The amount of purchas-
ing done with minority-owned businesses as a percentage of total purchasing dollars.
Charitable contributions to minorities: The amount of charitable cash contributions
given to organizations or programs that primarily benefit minorities as a percentage of
total cash contributions.
(Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis)
Measurable diversity plans
Assessment of commitment "at the top"
Good illustrations of commitment and execution
Professional development plans and strategies
Commitment to change over time
Diversity at Non-Profit Organizations and Educational Institutions
Diversity Best Practices (2005)
1. Clear sense of strategic direction
2. Adherence to consistent, key messages supporting brand strategy
3. An operational plan
4. A regular schedule of staff performance evaluation
gauging effort and results
5. Staff supervision that advances knowledge about the enrollment process
6. A culture of evidence
7. Assessing recruitment priorities
8. Reporting of progress over time, gauged against prioritization
9. Campus tour program
10.Process for managing web content to keep it current and relevant
From Ten Things the President Should Expect of the Chief Admission Officer
University of Puget Sound
Critical Success Factors for Diversity
Specifically in higher education, research found that several standards emerged as indicators of successful diversity programs on other campuses.
1. Access and representation of underrepresented students, staff, and faculty
Active recruiting of students and faculty of color
Having minority admission counselors on staff
Availability and tracking of racial/ethnic data on students, faculty, and staff
Engaging in strategic faculty hires
Monitoring staff and faculty searches and modifying process as needed
Using alternative recruiting venues for faculty and staff to increase the diversity of the pool
Educating and training search committees
Partnering with community colleges and high schools to reach more diverse students
2. Opportunities for cross-racial interaction
Incorporating diversity-theme-based living and learning communities into campus housing options
Taking diversity issues under special consideration when making housing assignments
Cultivating a dialog among faculty, staff, and students on diversity issues
Engaging in and examining conversation about challenging and significant social issues as a campus community
3. Academic and social successes of underrepresented students
Creating and implementing summer bridge programs that introduce underserved middle and high school students to college life
Establishing special honors programs to support and encourage college application and attendance among at-risk students
4. Diverse perspectives in classes
Requiring all students to take diversity courses with content addressing both domestic and international issues
Applying pedagogical approaches that are race and culture aware
Increasing race/ethnic/multicultural studies courses
5. Support academic/social needs of underrepresented students
Creating and making accessible support groups for underrepresented students
Planning and executing varied social programs and activities
Organizing academic support programs for underrepresented students
Instituting peer mentoring programs
6. Support for underrepresented faculty and staff
Establishing mentoring programs
Providing increased access to grants and research sabbatical leaves for faculty of color
7. Link the work of student affairs and academic affairs
Collaboration between the offices of student affairs and academic affairs to produce joint programming on diversity
Integrating student learning in curricular and cocurricular activities
Creating shared accountability, recognition, and reward programs
8. Connect campus with ethnic communities
Sharing the university's broad knowledge base and pool of experts with the community
Establishing successful communication contacts and networks within minority communities
Increasing collaboration with community-based organizations on diversity-related activities
Growing the involvement of individuals from the communities in university programs, activities, committees, etc.
9. Assess progress
Ongoing assessment of the campus climate for diversity
Measuring learning outcomes by a set of goal areas
Tracking changes in the university demographic profile, specifically in representation, retention, graduation, and promotion
Version of 11/24/2012